Succinate is a normal metabolite produced both by human cells but also by gut microbiome.
Succinate is much more than a mere fueling source, since it has many additional roles derived from both intracellular but also extracellular actions through its receptor SUCNR1. This pleiotropy allows succinate to have many different and sometimes differing functions both in health and disease.
Overall, in many different contexts succinate acts as a pro-inflammatory stimulus regulating local stress, tissue damage and immune response and is also a well known oncometabolite. Importantly, succinate is elevated in the following pathological situations:
We have demonstrated that intestinal succinate is a relevant source of circulating succinate, thus setting the stage for the development of our propietary gut-restricted succinate-decreasing therapies to treat inflammatory and metabolic diseases, being Inflammatory Bowel Disease our first clinical indication.